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Draft 3 (580)

Red-headed Woodpecker

Introduction

The Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) is a special bird with a gorgeous appearance. The most interesting aspect of this bird is that it not only taps on the tree trunk to find food but also can catch insects in the air. However, this magnificent bird is decreasing more and more in number because of several factors.

Physical Characteristics

64992611-1280px

(Aldrich, 2017)

The Red-headed Woodpecker is a medium-sized woodpecker (7.5-9.1 in. in length, 2.0-3.2 oz. in weight and 16.5 in. in wingspan) with a large, rounded head, short, stiff tail, and a powerful, spike-like bill (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, n.d.). This species is easy to recognize because both the mature male and female have a crimson head, white neck, throat and upper breast, while other parts are light grey in color. Meanwhile, the immature birds have greyish-brown heads and eyes, and brownish-black tails (Smith et al., 2000). This bird is outstanding in appearance and fascinates even the seasoned bird watchers.

Food

The Red-headed Woodpecker’s diet can include plenty of cultivated and wild fruit (apples, cherries, strawberries, or raspberries) as well as several types of nuts (acorns and beechnuts). Like other woodpeckers, they can hammer away at wood to eat insects (grasshoppers, crickets, larvae, caterpillar, butterflies, etc.) (Short, 1982). Furthermore, they forage on the ground or in the trees to look for small fruit and insects (Root, 1988). The interesting thing about the Red-headed Woodpecker is that it can catch insects in the air while flying (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, n.d.). Thanks to all this, they can find a lot of food in the summer and food to survive in the winter.

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(Birds of North America Online, n.d.)

Reproduction

Besides their ability to find plenty of food, the other special characteristic in the life of the Red-headed Woodpeckers is that they are monogamous (Smith et al., 2000). They often live and nurture immature birds together.

Plate-27-Red-headed-Woodpecker-final

(Audubon, n.d.)

This species breeds between April and August. The female will tap on the male’s tree to indicate which one is accepted (Smith et al., 2000). This is surprising since both birds do most things together.  For instance, male and female excavate their nest and incubate the eggs for 12 to 14 days after the female bird lays 4 to 7 eggs. Then, they care for the fledglings about 24 to 27 days (NatureServe Explorer, 2011). They obviously believe in teamwork.

Status

Unfortunately, the Red-headed Woodpecker populations have declined significantly, e.g. by 65.5% over 40 years in North America and 60% in Ontario in the last 20 years (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 2004). In fact, human activities damaging nature are the most common causes of this decline. Firstly, the removal of dead trees for agriculture is a threat to these birds because they do not have enough area to make their nests (Government of Ontario, n.d.). In addition, due to the diminishing natural environment, the competition for nest sites between the starlings and the Red-headed Woodpeckers has become more aggressive (Jacob et al., 2014). This is the main reason for the decrease in numbers of the Red-headed Woodpecker. Additionally, some scientists have proven that mortality of this bird can be caused by collisions with communication towers (Longcore et al., 2013). Thus, a lot of construction can reduce, even destroy the bird’s habitat.

Conclusion

The Red-headed Woodpecker is listed as Near Threatened on the list of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in Canada and several U.S. states (BirdLife International, 2017). Therefore, besides Government initiatives, individuals should have some basic knowledge about the Red-headed Woodpecker to help protect this species.

(580 words)

References

Aldrich, A. (2017, March 15). Adult [Digital image]. Retrieved April 4, 2018, from https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-headed_Woodpecker/media-browser/64992611

Audubon, J. J. (n.d.). Red-headed Woodpecker [Digital image]. Retrieved April 4, 2018, from http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/red-headed-woodpecker

Birds of North America Online. (n.d.). Adult Red-headed Woodpecker flycatching [Digital image]. Retrieved April 4, 2018, from https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/rehwoo/foodhabits

BirdLife International. (2017). Melanerpes erythrocephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20173.RLTS.T22680810A118537463.en

Government of Ontario. (n.d.). Red-headed woodpecker. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from Government of Ontario: https://www.ontario.ca/page/red-headed-woodpecker

Jacob, L. B., Edwards, J.W., Bolsinger, J.S., & Katzner T.E. (2014). Survival of Red-headed Woodpeckers’ (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) nests in northern New York. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 700-707.

Smith, K.G., Withgott, J.H., & Rodewald, P.G. (2000). The Bird of North America. In Red-headed Woodpecker (p. 518). Philadelphia: The Birds of North America.

Longcore, T., Rich, C., Mineau, P., MacDonald, B., Bert, D.G., Sullivan, L.M., Mutrie, E., Gauthreaux, S.A., Avery, M.L., Crawford, R.L., Manville, A.M., Travis, E.R. & Drake, D. (2013, February). Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biological Conservation, 410-419.

NatureServe Explorer. (2011, May). Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Retrieved from NatureServe Explorer: http://explorer.natureserve.org/servlet/NatureServe?searchName=Melanerpes+erythrocephalus

Root, T. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Short, L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World (Vol. Monograph series). Greenville, Delaware, United States: Museum of Natural History.

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (2004). Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conversation Plan. Ithaca: The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from http://www.partnersinflight.org/cont_plan/

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (n.d.). Red-headed Woodpecker. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from The Cornell Lab of Ornithology: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-headed_Woodpecker/id

 

 

Draft 2 (595)

Red-headed woodpecker

The Red-headed Woodpecker is a special bird with a gorgeous appearance. The most interesting aspect of this bird is that it not only knocks on the tree trunk to find food but also can catch insects in the air. However, this magnificent bird is decreasing more and more in number because of several factors.

The Red-headed Woodpecker has the scientific name of Melanerpes erythrocephalus  (Linnaeus, 1758).

Physical Characteristic

It is a medium-sized woodpecker (7.5-9.1 in. in length, 2.0-3.2 oz. in weight and 16.5 in. in wingspan) with a large, rounded head, short, stiff tail, and a powerful, spike-like bill (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, n.d.). Both the mature male and female have a crimson head, white neck, throat and upper breast, while other parts are light grey in color. Meanwhile, the immature birds have greyish-brown heads and eyes, and brownish-black tails (Smith, Withgott, Rodewald, 2000).

Habitat

According to the Government of Ontario, the habitat of the Red-headed Woodpecker is open woodland and woodland edges in winter, tree-rows in agricultural areas, standing timber in beaver swamps and other wetlands, especially parks, golf courses, and cemeteries. Moreover, they live in areas that typically have many dead trees for nesting and perching.

“This woodpecker regularly winters in the United States, moving to locations where it can find sufficient acorns and beechnuts to eat. A few of these birds will stay the winter in woodlands in southern Ontario, Canada if there are adequate supplies of nuts” (Government of Ontario, n.d.). In Canada, people can see the Red-headed Woodpecker in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Quebec.

Food

The Red-headed Woodpecker’s diet can include plenty of cultivated and wild fruit (apples, cherries, strawberries, or raspberries) as well as several types of the nuts (acorns and beechnuts). Furthermore, like other woodpeckers, they can hammer at wood to eat insects (grasshoppers, crickets, larvae, caterpillar, butterflies, etc.) (Short, 1982). They also fly to catch insects in the air (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, n.d.). In winter, they can forage on the ground or in the tree to look for small fruit and insects on warm days (Root, 1988).

Reproduction

One of the interesting things in the life of the Red-headed Woodpecker is that they are monogamous, with breeding pairs often staying together for several years. This species breeds between April and August, although most egg-laying occurs from May to June (Smith, Withgott, Rodewald, 2000). The female bird can lay 4 to 7 eggs (1.0 in. in egg length, 0.8 in. in egg width) each season. Then, both birds incubate the eggs together for 12 to 14 days, caring for the young about 24 to 27 days (NatureServe Explorer, 2011).

Status

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology has indicated that the Red-headed Woodpecker populations have declined significantly, e.g. by 65.5% over 40 years in North America and 60% in Ontario in the last 20 years because of habitat loss due to forestry and agriculture (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 2004). In fact, human activities damaging nature are the most causes of this phenomenon. Firstly, the elimination of dead trees for agriculture is a threat to these birds because they cannot have enough area to make their nest (Government of Ontario, n.d.). Especially, due to the diminishing of the natural environment, the competition for nest sites between the starlings and Red-headed Woodpeckers became more severe (Jacob et al., 2014). That is the reason to decrease the number of that species. Additionally, some scientists have proven that mortality events of that bird can be caused by collisions with communication towers (Longcore, et al., 2013). Thus, most of the constructions can narrow, even destroy the bird’s habitat.

The Red-headed Woodpecker is listed as Near Threatened of the Red List of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in Canada and several U.S. states. Therefore, beside actions of government, individuals should have basic knowledge about the Red-headed Woodpecker to protect this species.

References

Government of Ontario. (n.d.). Red-headed woodpecker. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from Government of Ontario: https://www.ontario.ca/page/red-headed-woodpecker

Jacob, L. B., Edwards, J.W., Bolsinger, J.S., & Katzner T.E. (2014). Survival of Red-headed Woodpeckers’ (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) nests in northern New York. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 700-707.

Smith, K.G., Withgott, J.H., & Rodewald, P.G. (2000). The Bird of North America. In Red-headed Woodpecker (p. 518). Philadelphia: The Bird of North America.

Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae (10 ed.).

Longcore, T., Rich, C., Mineau, P., MacDonald, B., Bert, D.G., Sullivan, L.M., Mutrie, E., Gauthreaux, S.A., Avery, M.L., Crawford, R.L., Manville, A.M., Travis, E.R. & Drake, D. (2013, February). Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biological Conservation, 410-419.

NatureServe Explorer. (2011, May). Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Retrieved from NatureServe Explorer: http://explorer.natureserve.org/servlet/NatureServe?searchName=Melanerpes+erythrocephalus

Root, T. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. The University of Chicago Press.

Short, L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World (Vol. Monograph series). Greenville, Delaware, United States: Museum of Natural History.

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (2004). Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conversation Plan. Ithaca: The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from http://www.partnersinflight.org/cont_plan/

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (n.d.). Red-headed Woodpecker. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from The Cornell Lab of Ornithology: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-headed_Woodpecker/id

 

 

Draft 1 (680)

Red-headed woodpecker

The Red-headed Woodpecker is the special bird with the gorgeous appearance. The most interesting of that bird is that it not only knocks on the trunk tree to find food but also can catches insects in the air. However, this magnificent bird is decreasing more and more because of several causes.

Name:

The Red-headed Woodpecker has the scientific name as Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758).

Physical characteristic:

It is medium-sized woodpeckers (7.5-9.1 in. in length, 2.0-3.2 oz. in weight and 16.5 in. in wingspan) with large, rounded heads, short, stiff tails, and powerful, spike-like bills. (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, n.d.). Both mature male and female have a crimson head, white neck, throat and upper breast, while other parts are light grey color. Meanwhile, the immature birds have greyish-brown head and iris, brownish-black tail (K.G. Smith, J.H. Withgott, P.G. Rodewald, 2000).

Habitat:

According to Government of Ontario, the habitat of the Red-headed Woodpecker is open woodland and woodland edges in winter, tree-rows in agricultural areas, standing timber in beaver swamps and other wetlands, especially, parks, golf courses, and cemeteries. Moreover, they live in areas where typically have many dead trees for nesting and perching. “This woodpecker regularly winters in the United States, moving to locations where it can find sufficient acorns and beechnuts to eat. A few of these birds will stay the winter in woodlands in southern Ontario if there are adequate supplies of nuts”. In Canada, people can see the Red-headed Woodpecker in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Quebec (Government of Ontario, n.d.).

Food:

The Red-headed Woodpecker’s diet can include plenty of cultivated and wild fruit (apples, cherries, strawberries, or raspberries) as well as several types of the mast (acorns and beechnuts). Furthermore, like other woodpeckers, they can hammer at wood to catch insects (grasshoppers, crickets, larvae, caterpillar, butterflies, etc.) (Short, 1982). They also fly to hunt insects in the air (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, n.d.). In winter, they can forage on the ground or tree to look small fruit and insects on warm days (Root, 1988).

Behavior:

According to The Bird of North America, the Red-headed Woodpecker is the most pugnacious of all woodpeckers. They can fight to get and protect nets and food (K.G. Smith, J.H. Withgott, P.G. Rodewald, 2000). For example, the Red-headed Woodpecker is more aggressive than starling and force starling to abandon nest cavity (Ingold, 1994).

Reproduction:

One of interesting thing in the life of the Red-headed Woodpecker is that they are monogamous. with breeding pairs often staying together for several years. This species breeds between April and August, although most egg-laying occurs from May to June (K.G. Smith, J.H. Withgott, P.G. Rodewald, 2000). The female bird can lay 4 to 7 eggs (1.0 in. in egg length, 0.8 in. in egg width) each season then both birds in pair incubate together for 12 to 14 days, caring for the young about 24 to 27 days (NatureServe Explorer, 2011).

Status:

In fact, Cornell Lab of Ornithology has indicated that the Red-headed Woodpecker populations have declined significantly, e.g. by 65.5% decline over 40 years in North America and 60% in Ontario in the last 20 years because of habitat loss due to forestry and agricultural (Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 2004). “The removal of dead trees in which they nest is also believed to be a threat to these birds” (Government of Ontario, n.d.). Additionally, some scientists have proved that mortality events of that bird can be caused by collisions with communication towers (Longcore, T., Rich, C., Mineau, P., MacDonald, B., Bert, D.G., Sullivan, L.M., Mutrie, E., Gauthreaux, S.A., Avery, M.L., Crawford, R.L., Manville, A.M., Travis, E.R. & Drake, D, 2013). Last but not least, the competitors for nest sites with Red-headed Woodpeckers is also reason to decrease the quantity of that species (Jacob L. Berl, John W. Edwards, Jeffrey S. Bolsinger, Todd E. Katzner, 2014)

The Red-headed Woodpecker is considered as Near Threatened level on the Red List of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Therefore, government and individual should have actions to reduce threats, as well as maintain the number of that species.

References

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (2004). Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conversation Plan. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from http://www.partnersinflight.org/cont_plan/

Government of Ontario. (n.d.). Red-headed woodpecker. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from Government of Ontario: https://www.ontario.ca/page/red-headed-woodpecker

Ingold, D. (1994). Influence of Nest-Site Competition between European Starlings and woodpeckers. Wilson Ornithological Society, 227-241.

Jacob L. Berl, John W. Edwards, Jeffrey S. Bolsinger, Todd E. Katzner. (2014). Survival of Red-headed Woodpeckers’ (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) nests in northern New York. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 700-707.

K.G. Smith, J.H. Withgott, P.G. Rodewald. (2000). The Bird of North America. In Red-headed Woodpecker (p. 518). Philadelphia: The Bird of North America.

Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae (10 ed.).

Longcore, T., Rich, C., Mineau, P., MacDonald, B., Bert, D.G., Sullivan, L.M., Mutrie, E., Gauthreaux, S.A., Avery, M.L., Crawford, R.L., Manville, A.M., Travis, E.R. & Drake, D. (2013, February). Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biological Conservation, 410-419.

NatureServe Explorer. (2011, May). Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Retrieved from NatureServe Explorer: http://explorer.natureserve.org/servlet/NatureServe?searchName=Melanerpes+erythrocephalus

Root, T. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. The University of Chicago Press.

Short, L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World (Vol. Monograph series). Greenville, Delaware, United States: Museum of Natural History.

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (n.d.). Red-headed Woodpecker. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from The Cornell Lab of Ornithology: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-headed_Woodpecker/id

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4 thoughts on “Profile

  1. Vivid detail – Yes
    Nutshell paragraph – Yes
    Focus on subject – Yes
    Relevance – Full of detail but the last paragraph is lacking something to stick with the reader
    Coherent – Yes
    Format – Yes, Needing a title page, would work on bringing the word count down as the max word count is 550 words and you are at 663 word approximately
    Clear sentences – Yes
    Quotations – yes, but the profile reads as though its all quotations with little outside voice
    Citations – All citations look good but I would take a second look at them to make sure all information is there
    Dictation – Very little outside voice making it hard to determine the dictation
    Spelling – Good
    Grammar – Good
    Capitalization – Good
    Punctuation – Good

  2. Make sure all citations have a date.
    Pay attention to work count.
    I’m a little unsure as to what your topic is. Maybe tie it in to each paragraph a little more.
    Pay attention to run on sentences.

  3. You need to make sure that all in text citations have either a date or n.d. associated with them. You have a lot of facts about the bird which is good but you also need to use your own thoughts in the essay. The reader should know what your impression of the bird is by the end of the essay. Right now the essay reads a bit like a Wikipedia entry and not like an essay with a theme. What do you think is the most interest thing about the bird and relate all of your topics to that idea.

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